Education in the 21st century is not the same as education in the 20th century. We hear about the changing educational landscape time and again, but the real question is how is it different? In both centuries, education has been the main mechanism for individuals to gain core knowledge and concepts. However, now society demands that education systems equip students with the ability to go beyond learning core knowledge and concepts to using and applying them within the socio-cultural context of their societies. In other words, the 21st century has seen a major shift in learning goals—formal education sectors in countries all over the world want their young people to be able to think critically and creatively, solve complex problems, make evidence-based decisions, and work collaboratively. The major issue facing countries, then, is how to implement fully a 21st century skills agenda that focuses on teaching, learning, and assessment that is aligned with changing educational goals.

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